Millionaires are made every year through farming in Nigeria and there is simply no end to the prospects of creating more wealth in Nigerian farms in the coming years. Goat farming business is feasible because of the increasing human populations not only in Nigeria but around the world. This situation creates considerable demand for more food sources of animal protein. Goats can contribute significantly in convening with this increasing demand. It is less complicated to augment the population of existing goats as compared to the bigger stock.
Economically, goat farming for commercial production has great potential in Nigeria. Goat rearing enjoys a very wide market share in Nigeria in excess of N40billion and all the products of goats are marketable, and nothing is a waste. Goats produce meat, milk, skin and droppings, which are being used as manure; and the skin can be exported to leather manufacturing companies to earn hard currencies; it can also be sold to local leather manufacturing companies.
Requirement For Goat Farming
Land Acquisition: Farmers should survey the land, its location, road accessibility, availability of water sources, and other considerations. Inspect the condition of the soil if suitable for growing green fodder to feed the goats, but with goat feeds, feeding will not be a challenge. You can use organic enzyme to condition the soil for a good greener fodder for the goats.
Registration: It is necessary to register your farm as a business for it to have a legal and co-operate face. Your farm can not have a corporate account with any bank without it being registered as a business venture or limited liability. This will also help you in securing government’s agricultural loan as well while doing international business.
Goat Breeds: There are different breeds of goat in Nigeria. Each breed is well adapted to its local area of origin. If there are traits you like in other breeds which are not local to where you propose to set up your goat farm, the best thing to do is cross bread the “imported” goat with a breed that is local to you: Sokoto Red Goat, Kanuri White and West African Dwarf.
Feeding with the modern feed finishing techniques which enable a farmer to feed-finished small ruminants to maturity within 50-65 days while large ruminants within 90-120 days.
Two Types Of Feeding You Can Apply
Feeding with sinished feed: When feeding with finished feed such as formulated finished feed or branded finished feed (rico gado) you are expected to feed the goats with 1kg of the feed every day with the choice of your feed (finished feed such as formulated finished feed or branded finished feed (rico gado), Make sure there is water for them to drink.
Feeding with roughage: You can feed them on leaves, cut grasses for them; they feed well on kitchen waste like cassava peelings, plantain peelings, maize husk, maize bran or chaff. They can as well graze but in this case must be monitored very well. Add very little table salt to the water, it triggers their appetite and makes them eat more.
Goats are prone to bovine diseases but I have never experienced or hear of any attack of epidemic level among goats. The common diseases are:
Bloat; This occurs when they feed on weeds that are poisonous or if you feed them on beans (cow pea) and allow them to drink excess water on top.
Scabies and dandruff: These are skin diseases. Treat by rubbing palm oil or engine oil on the body of the goat. Under no condition should you give antibiotics to goats orally if there is need for antibiotics it must be injected intra muscular.
Goat Housing System
Intensive system: Under this system, the goats are grouped according to sex and age and these groups are separately confined to a shed, where the farmer supplies feeds and water to the goats. The animal’s movement is restricted. This system may be expensive and requires regular human supervision but the output is usually encouraging.
Semi-intensive system: In this system, animals are kept under confinement for a limited time, but have freedom to move freely to feed in a restricted area. The capital outlay for this system include: fencing of land/space shed building, etc. This system is recommended for commercial goat farming.
Tethering: In this system, animals are kept on public ground, having enough vegetation. Goats are not segregated on the basis of age and sex.
Semi-intensive system: In this system, animals go about looking for food and water. Animals graze on public pasture and in the night they are kept in fenced shelter.
This system is inexpensive and requires minimal human supervision.
Extensive system: During the dry season, when grasses and plants disappear and water becomes scarce; many herdsmen join together and migrate to another area in search of pasture and water. This is an indigenous knowledge of goat farming.
Get involved into professional goat rearing and make money for yourself. A full-grown goat sells for between N20,000 to N45,000. You can start with any amount depending on your financial capacity.